Persias Bibliography

Abdulghani, Jasim M.,Iraq and Iran: The Years of Crisis, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984, ISBN: 0-801825199, Buy/Reviews.

Ahmad, Kamal Madhar,Kurdistan During the First World War, London, Saqi Books, 1994.

Ahsan, `Abdushshakur,Modern trends in the Persian language, Islamabad, Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies, 1976.

Anonymous,The Kurds: Search for Identity: An International Conference - April 17-18 2000, Washington, DC, American University, 2000, On line .

Anonymous,Women, Islam and Equality, The National Council of Resistance of Iran, 1995.

Ansari, Ali,Iran, NYC, Routledge, 2004, ISBN: 0-415-28711-1.

Arberry., A.J.,The legacy of Persia, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1953.

Ardalan, Nader,The sense of unity : the Sufi tradition in Persian architecture, Chicago, London, U. of Chicago Pr, 1973.

Arfa, Hassan,The Kurds: An Historical and Political Study, London, Oxford University Press, 1966.

Atabaki Touraj and Erik J. Zurcher,Men of Order- Authoritarian Modernisation Under Ataturk and Reza Shah, London, I.B. Tauris, 2003, ISBN: 1-86064-426-0, Buy/Reviews.

Atkinson, Rick,Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War, NYC, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1994.

Attar, Farid al-Din,The conference of the birds, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, Penguin Books, 1984.

Barth, Fredrik,Principles of Social Organization in Southern Kurdistan (University Ethnographic Museum Bulletin, No. 7, Oslo, Brodrene Jordensen, 1953.

Bausani, Alessandro,Religion in Iran: From Zoroaster to Baha'u'llah, Bibliotheca Persica, 2000, ISBN: 0-933273266, Buy/Reviews.

Bausani, Alessandro, 1921,The Persians, from the earliest days to the twentieth century, New York, St. Martin's Press, 1971.

Beeman, William O.,Language, status, and power in Iran, Bloomington, IND, Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bill, James,Musaddiq, Iranian Nationalism, and Oil, Austin, University of Texas, 1988.

Bill, James A.,Eagle and the Lion: The Tragedy of American Iranian Relations, New Haven Ct, Yale University Press, 1989, ISBN: 0-300-044127, Buy/Reviews.

Brauer, Erich,The Jews of Kurdistan, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1993.

Browne, Edward Granville,A literary history of Persia, London, Cambridge 1924.

Browne, Edward Granville,A year amongst the Persians : impressions as to the life, character, and thought of the people of Persia, received during twelve months' residence in that country in the years 1887-8, London, A. and C. Black, 1893.

Bruijn, J. T. P. de,Of piety and poetry : the interaction of religion and literature in the life and works of Hakim Sana'i of Ghazna, Leiden, Brill, 1983.

Bruinessen, Martin van,Kurds and Identity Politics, London, I.B. Tauris, 2001, ISBN: 1-86064-571-2, Buy/Reviews.

Bulloch, John and Harvey Morris,No Friends But the Mountains: The Tragic History of the Kurds, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992.

Chelkowski ,Peter J. (ed.),Ta`ziyeh, ritual and drama in Iran, New York, New York University Press, 1979.

Chubin, Shahram and Charles Tripp,Iran and Iraq at War, Boulder, Westview Press, 1988.

Cole, Juan,Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Baha'i Faith in the Nineteenth-Century Middle East. Studies in the Babi and Baha'i religions, vol. 9, NYC, Columbia University Press, 1998, ISBN: 0-231110812, Buy/Reviews.

Cole, Juan,Sacred Space and Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi'ite Islam, IB Tauris, 2002.

Cole, Juan R.I. and Nikki R. Keddie (ed.),Shiism and Social Protest, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1986.

Cordesman, Anthony H.,The Iran-Iraq War: 1984-1986, Rosslyn, Virginia, Eaton Analytical Assessments Center, 1986.

Cordesman, Anthony and Abraham Wagner,The Lessons of Modern War. Vol. I The Iran-Iraq War, Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1990.

Cordesman, Anthony and Abraham Wagner,The Lessons of Modern War. Vol. II The Iran-Iraq War, Westview Press, 1990.

Cronin, Stephanie,The Making of Modern Iran: State and Society Under Riza Shah, London, Routledge Curzon, 2003, ISBN: 0-415-30284-6.

Daniel, Elton L.,The History of Iran, NYC, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, ISBN: 0-313-30731-8, Buy/Reviews.

Davis, Dick, 1945,Epic and sedition : the case of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Fayetteville, University of Arkansas Press, 1992.

De Groot, Joanna,Religion Culture and Politics in Iran, 1870-1980, London, I.B. Tauris, 2001, ISBN: 1-86064-571-2, Buy/Reviews.

El-Azhary, M.S,The Iran-Iraq War: An Historical, Economic, and Political Analysis, NYC, St. Martin's Press, 1984.

Entessar, Nader,Kurdish Ethnonationalism, Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992.

Esposito. John L. (ed.),The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact, NYC, Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN: 0813010179, Buy/Reviews.

Floor, Willem,Agriculture in Qajar Iran, DC, Mage, 2003, ISBN: 0-934211-78-7.

Floor, Willem,Traditional Crafts in Qajar Iran (1800-1925), Costa Mesa, MAZDA, 2003.

Forbis, William,Fall of the Peacock Throne: the Story of Iran, NYC, Harper and Row, 1980.

Friedl, Erika,Women of Deh Koh : lives in an Iranian village, Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1989.

Fuad, Jamal,The Kurdish question: Missed opportunities and future challenges, Tallahassee, FL, Badlisy Center for Kurdish Studies, 1993.

Ghamari-Tabrizi, Behrooz,Islam and Dissent in Post-Revolutionary Iran: The Religious Politics of Abdolkarim Soroush, London, I.B. Tauris, 2001, ISBN: 1-86064-419-8, Buy/Reviews.

Graham, Robert,Iran: The Illusion of Power, NYC, St. Martin's, 1979.

Grummond, Stephen,The Iran-Iraq War: Islam Embattled, Westport, CT, Praeger, 1982.

Guppy, Shusha, The blindfold horse : memories of a Persian childhood, Boston : Beacon Press, 1988.

Hafiz,Teachings of Hafiz translated by Gertrude Lowthian, London, Octagon Press Press for the Sufi Trust, 1979.

Haseeb, Khair El-Din (ed.),Arab-Iranian Relations, St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Hashim, Ahmed S.,The Crisis of the Iranian State, NYC, Oxford University Press, 1995.

Hassanpour, Amir,Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan, San Francisco, Mellen Research University Press, 1992.

Heiss, Mary Ann,Empire and Nationhood: The United States, Great Britain, and Iranian Oil, 1950-1954, NYC, Columbia University Press, 1997, ISBN: 0231108192, Buy/Reviews.

Hillmann, Michael C.,A lonely woman : Forugh Farrokhzad and her poetry, Washington, D.C, Three Continents Press and Mage Publishers, 1987.

Hiro, Dilip,The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict, NYC, Routledge, 1991, ISBN: 0-415-90407-2, Buy/Reviews.

Houghton, David Patrick,US Foreign Policy and the Iran Hostage Crisis, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN: 0-521-80509-0, Buy/Reviews.

Hoveyda, Fereydoun,The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution, NYC, Greenwood, 2003, ISBN: 0-275-97858-3.

Hunter, Shireen,The PoIitics of Islamic Revolution, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1988.

Hussein, Fuad Mohammad,The legal concept of self-determination and the Kurdish question, Amsterdam, Luna, 1985.

Izady Mehrdad R.,The Kurds, Washington, DC, Taylor&Francis, 1992.

Jaber, Hala,Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance, NYC, Columbia University Press, 1997.

Jahanbakhsh, Forough,Islam, Democracy and Religious Modernism in Iran, 1953-2000: From Bazargan to Soroush, Leiden and NYC, Brill Academic Publishers, 2001, ISBN: 9004119825, Buy/Reviews.

Jamalzadah, Muhammad `Ali,Isfahan is half the world : memories of a Persian boyhood, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1983.

Juynboll, G. H. A. (ed.),Studies on the First Centuries of Islamic Society. Papers on Islamic History, Carbondale, South Illinois University Press, 1982.

Kamali, Masoud,Revolutionary Iran: Civil Society and State in the Modernization Process, Ashgate Publishing Company, 1998, ISBN: 1840144491, Buy/Reviews.

Kamshad, H. (Hassan),Modern Persian prose literature, Bethesda, Md, Iranbooks, 1996.

Kapadia, S. A.,Teachings of Zoroaster and the Philosophy of the Parsi Religion (1908, Kessinger Publishing Company, 1998, ISBN: 0-766101320, Buy/Reviews.

Kasaba, Resat and Sibel Bozdogan (ed.),Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1997.

Keddie N. (ed.),Religion and Politics in Iran, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1983.

Keddie N.,Roots of Revolution. An Interpretative History of Modern Iran, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1981.

Keddie, Nikki,An Islamic Response to Imperialism: Political and Religious Writings of Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1983.

Keddie, Nikki R.,Roots of revolution : an interpretive history of modern Iran, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1981.

Khadduri, Majid,The Gulf War: The Origins and Implications of the Iraq-Iran Conflict, NYC, Oxford, 1988.

Kinzer, Stephen,All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, NYC, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, ISBN: 0471265179, Buy/Reviews.

Kirisci, K. and Winrow, G.W,The Kurdish Question and Turkey: An Example of a Trans-State Ethnic Conflict, London, Frank Cass, 1997.

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. and Allison C.,Kurdish Culture and Identity, London, Zed Books, 1996.

Kreyenbroek, Philip G. and Sperl Stefan (ed.),The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview, London/New York, Routledge, 1992.

Kriwaczek,Paul,In Search of Zarathustra: The First Prophet and the Ideas That Changed the World, NYC, Knopf, 2003, ISBN: 0-375415289, Buy/Reviews.

Laizer, Sheri,Martyrs, Traitors and Patriots, London, Zed Books, 1996.

Lytle, Elizabeth Edith,A bibliography of the Kurds, Kurdistan, and the Kurdish question, Monticello, Ill, Council of Planning Librarians, 1977.

Marschall-Jones, Christin,Iran's Persian Gulf Policy, London, Routledge Curzon, 2003, ISBN: 0-415-29789-X.

McDowall, D.,A Modern History of the Kurds, London and New York, I.B. Tauris, 1996.

McDowall, David,The Kurds, London, Minority Rights Report, 1991.

Meisami, Julie Scott,Medieval Persian court poetry, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1987.

Mojab, Shahrzad,Women of a non-state nation: The Kurds, Costa Mesa, Calif, Mazda Publishers, 2001.

Molavi, Afshin,Persian Pilgrimages: Journeys Across Iran, NYC, W.W. Norton & Company, 2002, ISBN: 0393051196, Buy/Reviews.

Mottahedeh, Roy P.,The mantle of the Prophet : religion and politics in Iran, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1985.

Nafisi, Azar,Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books, NYC, Random House, 2003, ISBN: 0375504907, Buy/Reviews.

Nigosian, S. A.,The Zoroastrian Faith: Tradition and Modern Research, Montreal, McGill-Queens University Press, 1993, ISBN: 0-773511334, Buy/Reviews.

O'Ballance, Edgar,The Kurdish Revolt, 1961-1970, Hamden, Connecticut, Archon Books, 1973, ISBN: 0-208-01395-4, Buy/Reviews.

O'Donnell, Terence,Garden of the brave in war, New Haven, Conn, Ticknor & Fields, 1980.

Ocalan Abdullah,Declaration on the democratic solution of the Kurdish question, London, Mesopotamian Publishers, 1999.

Olson Robert,The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism and the Sheik Said Rebellion, 1880-1925, Austin, The University of Texas Press, 1989.

Olson Robert,The Kurdish Question and Turkish-Iranian Relations: From World War I to 1998 (Kurdish Studies Series, No. 1, California, Mazda Publishers, 1998.

Olson, Robert (ed.),The Kurdish Nationalist Movement in the 1990's: It's Impact on Turkey and the Middle East, Lexington, The University Press of Kentucky, 1996.

Pelletiere, Stephen C.,The Kurds: An Unstable Element in the Gulf, Boulder, CO, Westview Press, 1984.

Ramazani, Nesta,The Dance of the Rose and the Nightingale, Syracuse, NY, Syracuse University Press, 2002.

Randal, Jonathan C.,After Such Knowledge, What Forgiveness? : My Encounters With Kurdistan, Denver, Westview Pr, 1999.

Rashid al-Din,Histoire des Mongols de la Perse.Translated and Edited by E. Quatrere, Paris, 1836.

Ricks, Thomas M. (ed.),Critical perspectives on modern Persian literature, Washington, D.C, Three Continents Press, 1984.

Rogers, Will and Sharon Rogers,Storm Center: The USS Vincennes and Iran Air Flight 655, Annapolis,MD, Naval Institute Press, 1992.

Rubin, Barry,Paved with Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran, NYC, Penguin Books, 1980.

Sabar, Yona,The Folk Literature of the Kurdistani Jews: An Anthology, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1982.

Sagang Sechen,A History of the Eastern Mongols to 1662. Part 1. Translated by J. R. Krueger. Mongolia society Ocasional Papers no. 2, Bloomington, India University Press, 1964.

Sciolino, Elaine,Persian Mirrors: The Elusive Face of Iran, Free Press, 2000, ISBN: 0-684-86290-5, Buy/Reviews.

Shaffer,Brenda,Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity (BCSIA Studies in International Security), No city, MIT Press, 2002, ISBN: 0262194775, Buy/Reviews.

Shaffer,Brenda,Partners in Need: The Strategic Relationship of Russia and Iran (Policy Papers (Washington Institute for Near East Policy), 58, DC, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2001, ISBN: 0944029485, Buy/Reviews.

Siavoshi, Sussan,Liberal nationalism in Iran : the failure of a movement, Boulder CO, Westview, 1990, ISBN: 0-8133-7413-8, Buy/Reviews.

Sick, Gary,All Fall Down: America's Tragic Encounter With Iran, Backinprint.com, 2001, ISBN: 0-595202535, Buy/Reviews.

Tahir-Kheli, Shirin and Shaheen Ayubi (ed.),The Iran-Iraq War: New Weapons, Old Conflicts, Westport, CT, Praeger, 1983.

Thackston, Wheeler McIntosh,An introduction to Persian, Bethesda, Md, Iranbooks, 1993.

Vali,Abbas,Modernity and the Stateless: The Kurdish Question in Iran, London, I.B. Tauris, 2002, ISBN: 1-86064-050-8, Buy/Reviews.

Wallach, Janet,Desert Queen: The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell: Adventurer, Adviser to Kings, Ally of Lawrence of Arabia, NYC, Anchor/Doubleday, 1996.

Waterfield, Robin E.,Christians In Persia, NYC, George Allen & Unwin, 1973, ISBN: 0-04-275002-4, Buy/Reviews.

Windfuhr, Gernot,Persian grammar : history and state of its study, The Hague ; New York, Mouton Publishers, 1979.

Wright, Robin,In The Name of God: The Khomeini Regime, NYC, Simon and Schuster, 1989.

Wright, Robin,Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam, NYC, Simon and Schuster, 1985.

Wright, Robin,The Last Great Revolution: Turmoil and Transformation in Iran, NYC, Vintage Books, 2000.

Zarcone, Theodore and Fariba Zarinebaf (ed.),Les Iraniens d'Istanbul, Paris, Teheran, Istanbul, Institut Francais de Recherches en Iran and Institut Francais d'etudes Anatoliennes, 1993.

122 entries. Updated: 11.01.04

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Life and legend

Cyrus was born between 590 and 580 bce, either in Media or, more probably, in Persis, the modern Fārs province of Iran. The meaning of his name is in dispute, for it is not known whether it was a personal name or a throne name given to him when he became a ruler. It is noteworthy that after the Achaemenian empire the name does not appear again in sources relating to Iran, which may indicate some special sense of the name.

Most scholars agree, however, that Cyrus the Great was at least the second of the name to rule in Persia. One cuneiform text in Akkadian—the language of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) in the pre-Christian era—asserts he was the

son of Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, great king, king of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, great king, king of Anshan, of a family [which] always [exercised] kingship.

In any case, it is clear that Cyrus came from a long line of ruling chiefs.

The most important source for his life is the Greek historian Herodotus. The idealized biography by Xenophon is a work for the edification of the Greeks concerning the ideal ruler, rather than a historical treatise. It does, however, indicate the high esteem in which Cyrus was held, not only by his own people, the Persians, but by the Greeks and others. Herodotus says that the Persians called Cyrus their father, while later Achaemenian rulers were not so well regarded. The story of the childhood of Cyrus, as told by Herodotus with echoes in Xenophon, may be called a Cyrus legend since it obviously follows a pattern of folk beliefs about the almost superhuman qualities of the founder of a dynasty. Similar beliefs also exist about the founders of later dynasties throughout the history of Iran. According to the legend, Astyages, the king of the Medes and overlord of the Persians, gave his daughter in marriage to his vassal in Persis, a prince called Cambyses. From this marriage Cyrus was born. Astyages, having had a dream that the baby would grow up to overthrow him, ordered Cyrus slain. His chief adviser, however, instead gave the baby to a shepherd to raise. When he was 10 years old, Cyrus, because of his outstanding qualities, was discovered by Astyages, who, in spite of the dream, was persuaded to allow the boy to live. Cyrus, when he reached manhood in Persis, revolted against his maternal grandfather and overlord. Astyages marched against the rebel, but his army deserted him and surrendered to Cyrus in 550 bce.

Cyrus’s conquests

After inheriting the empire of the Medes, Cyrus first had to consolidate his power over Iranian tribes on the Iranian plateau before expanding to the west. Croesus, king of Lydia in Asia Minor (Anatolia), had enlarged his domains at the expense of the Medes when he heard of the fall of Astyages, and Cyrus, as successor of the Median king, marched against Lydia. Sardis, the Lydian capital, was captured in 547 or 546, and Croesus was either killed or burned himself to death, though according to other sources he was taken prisoner by Cyrus and well treated. The Ionian Greek cities on the Aegean Sea coast, as vassals of the Lydian king, now became subject to Cyrus, and most of them submitted after short sieges. Several revolts of the Greek cities were later suppressed with severity. Next Cyrus turned to Babylonia, where the dissatisfaction of the people with the ruler Nabonidus gave him a pretext for invading the lowlands. The conquest was quick, for even the priests of Marduk, the national deity of the great metropolis of Babylon, had become estranged from Nabonidus. In October 539 bce, the greatest city of the ancient world fell to the Persians.

In the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1–4), Cyrus is famous for freeing the Jewish captives in Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. Cyrus was also tolerant toward the Babylonians and others. He conciliated local populations by supporting local customs and even sacrificing to local deities. The capture of Babylon delivered not only Mesopotamia into the hands of Cyrus but also Syria and Palestine, which had been conquered previously by the Babylonians. The ruler of Cilicia in Asia Minor had become an ally of Cyrus when the latter marched against Croesus, and Cilicia retained a special status in Cyrus’s empire. Thus it was by diplomacy as well as force of arms that he established the largest empire known until his time.

Cyrus seems to have had several capitals. One was the city of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, former capital of the Medes, and another was a new capital of the empire, Pasargadae, in Persis, said to be on the site where Cyrus had won the battle against Astyages. The ruins today, though few, arouse admiration in the visitor. Cyrus also kept Babylon as a winter capital.

No Persian chauvinist, Cyrus was quick to learn from the conquered peoples. He not only conciliated the Medes but united them with the Persians in a kind of dual monarchy of the Medes and Persians. Cyrus had to borrow the traditions of kingship from the Medes, who had ruled an empire when the Persians were merely their vassals. A Mede was probably made an adviser to the Achaemenian king, as a sort of chief minister; on later reliefs at Persepolis, a capital of the Achaemenian kings from the time of Darius, a Mede is frequently depicted together with the great king. The Elamites, indigenous inhabitants of Persis, were also the teachers of the Persians in many ways, as can be seen, for example, in the Elamite dress worn by Persians and by Elamite objects carried by them on the stone reliefs at Persepolis. There also seems to have been little innovation in government and rule, but rather a willingness to borrow, combined with an ability to adapt what was borrowed to the new empire. Cyrus was undoubtedly the guiding genius in the creation not only of a great empire but in the formation of Achaemenianculture and civilization.

Little is known of the family life of Cyrus. He had two sons, one of whom, Cambyses, succeeded him; the other, Bardiya (Smerdis of the Greeks), was probably secretly put to death by Cambyses after he became ruler. Cyrus had at least one daughter, Atossa (who married her brother Cambyses), and possibly two others, but they played no role in history.

When Cyrus defeated Astyages he also inherited Median possessions in eastern Iran, but he had to engage in much warfare to consolidate his rule in this region. After his conquest of Babylonia, he again turned to the east, and Herodotus tells of his campaign against nomads living east of the Caspian Sea. According to the Greek historian, Cyrus was at first successful in defeating the ruler of the nomads—called the Massagetai—who was a woman, and captured her son. On the son’s committing suicide in captivity, his mother swore revenge and defeated and killed Cyrus. Herodotus’s story may be apocryphal, but Cyrus’s conquests in Central Asia were probably genuine, since a city in farthest Sogdiana was called Cyreschata, or Cyropolis, by the Greeks, which seems to prove the extent of his Eastern conquests.

The legacy of Cyrus

It is a testimony to the capability of the founder of the Achaemenian empire that it continued to expand after his death and lasted for more than two centuries. But Cyrus was not only a great conqueror and administrator; he held a place in the minds of the Persian people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome or Moses for the Israelites. His saga follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world. The manner in which the baby Cyrus was given to a shepherd to raise is reminiscent of Moses in the bulrushes in Egypt, and the overthrow of his tyrannical grandfather has echoes in other myths and legends. There is no doubt that the Cyrus saga arose early among the Persians and was known to the Greeks. The sentiments of esteem or even awe in which Persians held him were transmitted to the Greeks, and it was no accident that Xenophon chose Cyrus to be the model of a ruler for the lessons he wished to impart to his fellow Greeks.

In short, the figure of Cyrus has survived throughout history as more than a great man who founded an empire. He became the epitome of the great qualities expected of a ruler in antiquity, and he assumed heroic features as a conqueror who was tolerant and magnanimous as well as brave and daring. His personality as seen by the Greeks influenced them and Alexander the Great, and, as the tradition was transmitted by the Romans, may be considered to influence our thinking even now. In the year 1971, Iran celebrated the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the monarchy by Cyrus.

Richard N. Frye

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