One of the greatest miracles of the Prophet is the miracle of Night Journey (Isra) and Ascension (Miraj), which is mentioned and narrated by the Quran, authentic hadith resources and history resources. First, we will explain how the miracle of Night Journey and Ascension took place quoting from the verses of the Quran, hadiths and narrations from authentic resources; then, we will give answers to the questions that can come to the mind regarding the issue.
Lexically “isra” means walking at night, traveling at night , “miraj” means rising, going up to a high place. The events of Night Journey and Ascension took place on the twelfth year  of the prophethood of Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) in Makkah. 
The event took place as follows in brief: On the 27th night of the month of Rajab , acting upon the call from God Almighty and guided by Gabriel (Jibril), the Prophet (pbuh) went from the Kaaba in Makkah to Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem and then to the sky, to the high realms and to the presence of God.
It is stated in the chapters of al-Isra and an-Najm in the Quran how the miracle of Night Journey and Ascension took place. The verses regarding the issue are as follows:
“Glory to (Allah) Who did take His Servant for Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the Farthest Mosque whose precincts We did bless― in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the one Who heareth and seeth (all things).” 
“While he was in the highest part of the horizon: Then he approached and came closer, And was at a distance of but two bow-lengths or (even) nearer; So did (Allah) convey the inspiration to His Servant (conveyed) what He (meant) to convey. The (Prophet's) (mind and) heart in no way falsified that which he saw. Will ye then dispute with him concerning what he saw? For indeed he saw him at a second descent. Near the Lote-tree beyond which none may pass: Near it is the Garden of Abode. Behold, the Lote-tree was shrouded (in mystery unspeakable!) (His) sight never swerved nor did it go wrong! For truly did he see of the Signs of his Lord the Greatest!.” 
How did the Ascension take place?
Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) went fromthe Kaaba (Makkah) to Masjid al-Aqsa (Jerusalem) on a Paradise animal similar to a horse called Buraq. Before he reached Jerusalem, he stopped by the place of Hazrat Moses (pbuh) and performed a two-rak’ah prayer there; then, he reached Masjid al-Aqsa. There, he was met by a group of prophets among which there were Jesus (Isa), Moses (Musa) and Abraham (Ibrahim). Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) led the other prophets in a prayer of two-rak’ahs.
After that, the Prophet (pbuh) was brought two bowls; one of them had wine and the other had milk. He was told, “Have either of them!" The Prophet (pbuh) chose the milk. Jibril said to the Prophet (pbuh), "You chose the natural one ; if you had chosen the wine, your ummah would have gone astray after you. You were led to the natural state by choosing the milk; your ummah was led to the natural state, too. Wine was rendered haram for you!” 
He stopped by all of the layers of the sky. He met the prophets Adam, Yahya (John), Isa, Yusuf, Idris (Enoch), Harun (Aaron) Musa and Ibrahim (peace be upon them all) respectively; they said to him, “Welcome!” and congratulated him.  Then, he visited Bayt al-Mamur (the much frequented house), which seventy thousand angels visited every day. 
After that, he went to Sidra al-Muntaha (Lote Tree of the Extremity) together with Jibril. Sidra al-Muntaha is a tree whose root is in the sixth layer of the sky and whose branches are over the seventh layer of the sky; it casts a shadow that covers the whole sky and Paradise; its leaves are like elephant ears and its fruits are like large jars.
Rafraf and the Meeting in the Furthermost Place
Jibril took the Prophet to higher places; eventually, he took the Prophet to such a high place that the Prophet started to hear the pens writing people’s actions. The Prophet (pbuh) saw that a very green Rafraf (silk bed) covered the horizon. The Prophet (pbuh) sat on Rafraf. Jibril left the Prophet there. The Prophet was elevated and approached to his Lord, who is Aziz (Mighty and Strong) and Jabbar (Compelling).
The Prophet started to hear the order of his Lord, "Do not be afraid, O Muhammad; approach!" In the end, he reached the place that nobody had reached before, attaining divine acceptance, grants and bounties. According to the narration of Ibn Abbas, the Prophet said, "I saw my sublime Lord!"
In Miraj, the Prophet (pbuh) gave the worshipping of all creatures to God Almighty as a gift instead of greetings. The talk of the Prophet (pbuh) with God Almighty consists of the words of tahiyyat, which is recited during prayer, which is the ascension of believers. Here is the meaning of that talk:
The Prophet (pbuh) said to God Almighty,
“All kinds of greetings, prayers and goodness belong to Allah.”Its meaning is “I present all of the greetings and glorification of the beings with their states and tongues, all of the natural blessedness and glorification of all blessed things like seeds and semen, all of the worshipping of conscious beings like human beings, all of the worshipping and glorification of all prophets and saints to you as a gift; they all belong to you.”
Upon this greeting, God Almighty said to His Prophet (pbuh), “Peace, the mercy of Allah and His blessings be on you, O Prophet!” Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, “Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of Allah.” Jibril witnessed this talk at Sidra al-Muntaha when Allah ordered him to be a witness by saying, “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.”
It is sunnah to recite those words that were uttered during the conversation in Ascension in prayer, which is regarded as the ascension of believers. Thus, all believers have the opportunity of presenting all of the worshipping of the unconscious and conscious beings to Allah within their own worshipping.
Things that were Given to the Prophet in Ascension
The Prophet (pbuh) was given three things as a result of the encounter in Miraj:
1. Five daily prayers equal to the reward of fifty daily prayers.
2.The last two verses of the chapter al-Baqara.
3.The muqhimat (major sins) of the people from the ummah of Muhammad were forgiven except those who associated partners with Allah.
As a matter of fact,, those gifts were expressed as follows in a hadith: “…Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) were given three things in Ascension: He was given five daily prayers, the last part of the chapter of al-Baqara (Amanarrasulu) and the promise that the sins ofthe people from the ummah of Muhammad would be forgiven except those who died associating partners with Allah.” (see Muslim, Iman, 279)
This glad tiding does not mean that no believers will enter Hell. It states that any sin can be forgiven and that a believer will not stay in Hell forever even if he is a sinner.
The believers who have more rewards than sins will go to Paradise directly. Those who have more sins will remain in Hell for a certain period so that they will be purified of their sins; and then they will go to Paradise.
"O Muhammad! These prayers need to be performed five times a day. However, there are ten rewards for each prayer! It means fifty prayers. 
I utter a word once; I will not change it! 
A person who intends to do a good deed but does not do it is given one reward due to his good intention; if he does it, he is given ten rewards.
No sin is written for a person who intends to do a bad deed but does not do it; if he does it, one sin is written for him". 
The following is stated in the last two verses of the chapter of al-Baqara:
The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith.
Each one (of them) believeth in Allah,
and His Messengers
"We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His Messengers."
And they say: "We hear and we obey;
(We seek) Thy forgiveness,
Our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys."
On no soul doth Allah place a burden greater than it can bear.
It gets every good that it earns
and it suffers every ill that it earns.
(Pray): "Our Lord! condemn us not if we forget or fall into error;
our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which Thou didst lay on those before us;
Our Lord! lay not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear.
Blot out our sins and grant us forgiveness.
Have mercy on us.
Thou art our Protector;
help us against those who stand against faith!" 
Muqhimat means major and dangerous sins that lead man to Hell. 
Once, the Prophet (pbuh) said,
"Beware seven things that lead man to destruction!"
"O Messenger of Allah! What are those dangerous things?" asked his Companions.
The Prophet said,
“To associate partners with Allah,
To cast a spell,
To kill a person unjustly, which was forbidden by Allah,
To devour interest (usury),
To devour the money of the orphans,
To escape from the battlefield,
To slander Muslim women who are chaste and never think of committing fornication that they have committed fornication!" 
Paradise is Shown to the Prophet (pbuh)
After Allah revealed to the Prophet what He was to reveal, the Prophet (pbuh) was taken to Paradise by Jibril. 
The width of Paradise is as much as the sky and what is under it.  The Prophet (pbuh) saw villas made of pearl, ruby and chrysolite ; he noticed that the soil of Paradise smelled musky.  The Prophet (pbuh) also saw a river next to which there were domes made of hollow pearls ; it was flowing on pearl and ruby stones and on musk. 
The Prophet (pbuh) asked, "O Jibril! What is this?" Jibril said, "It is the river Kawthar, which Allah gave you!" The water of the river Kawthar was tastier than honey and whiter than milk.
Hell is shown to the Prophet (pbuh)
Among the smiling angels that met the Prophet (pbuh) in the sky of the world, there was an angel called Malik, angel of Hell, who never smiled.
When the Prophet asked Jibril who he was and found out about his identity, he said to Jibril,
"Will you order him to show me Hell?"
"All right!" He said to Malik,"OMalik! Show Hell to Muhammad (pbuh)!"
When Malik unveiled the covering of Hell, it started to boil so much that the Prophet (pbuh) thought it would capture and burn everything. He said to Jibril,
"O Jibril! Order Malik to return it to its previous state!"
Jibril ordered Malik to return it to its previous state. He said to Hell,
When Hell returned to its place, Malik veiled its covering again.
The Prophet saw the tortures of thirst, chains of torture, torture snakes and scorpions and some other tortures.
The Prophet (pbuh) stated the following in a hadith:
"If you knew what I know, you would laugh a little and cry a lot."
The Prophet (pbuh) Returns to Makkah
The Prophet (pbuh) mounted on Buraq, which he had tied to the gate of the mosque Masjid al-Aqsa, and returned to Makkah. The Night Journey and Ascension of the Prophet took place one night between the night prayer and the morning prayer.
Sons of Abdulmuttalib Search for the Prophet (pbuh)
When Sons of Abdulmuttalib could not find the Prophet on the night of Ascension, they went out to look for him.
Hazrat Abbas went as far as Zituwa. He called out loudly,
"O Muhammad! O Muhammad!"
When the Prophet (pbuh) replied, "Yes!", Hazrat Abbas said,
"O my brother’s son! You put your tribe into trouble last night. Where were you?" The Prophet (pbuh) said,
"I went to Bayt al-Maqdis." Hazrat Abbas asked:
"Within one night? The Prophet (pbuh) said,
"Yes. I went and returned within one night!"Hazrat Abbas said,
"I hope only good things have happened to you!" The Prophet (pbuh) said,
"Yes, only good things have happened to me!"
In the morning, he told Makkans about Ascension near the Kaaba. They asked for evidence. He told them about the caravans he had seen on the way. The Qurayshis went out of Makkah to meet the caravans. They saw the caravans in the same state as the Prophet had informed them but they did not embrace Islam.
However, they asked the Prophet (pbuh) proof after proof that he went there. When the Prophet (pbuh) told them that he went to Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, the Qurayshis objected to him by saying, “How could Muhammad go to a place that takes a month to go and return in one night?” Then, those who had seen Masjid al-Aqsa before asked him, “Can you describe Masjid al-Aqsa to us?”
The Prophet narrated the talk between them as follows:
“I was very tired of their denial and questions. In fact, I had not experienced such difficulty until that moment. Just then, Allah showed me Baytu’l Maqdis. While looking at it, I described every detail one by one. They even asked me, “How many doors does Baytu’l Maqdis have?” However, I had not counted its number of doors. When I saw Baytu’l Maqdis across from me, I began to look at it, count each of its doors and told them the number.”
Thereupon, the polytheists said, “By God, you perfectly and correctly described it.” Nevertheless, they still did not become Muslims.
Meanwhile, Hazrat Abu Bakr came; the polytheists informed him about the situation. Hazrat Abu Bakr said, “If he said this, then it is undoubtedly true..”, confirming what he said. Then, Hazrat Abu Bakr was given the title “Siddiq (the Truthful)” by the Prophet.
Why did the Prophet Ascend?
A sultan has two kinds of talks. The first one is when the sultan rings a citizen and talks to him about a trivial matter. The second is when he talks to his special envoy as the head of the state, caliph and an administrator of the nation and in order to convey his commands everywhere and send his decrees.
As it is seen in this example, Allah has two kinds of talks with his slaves. One is special and little talk, the other is general and comprehensive talk. An example for the first one is Allah’s special and minute inspiration to some saints.
However, the fact that our Prophet (pbuh) as a person with the highest and greatest rank over all of the saints talks to Allah, who is the Creator of all of the beings, is an example to the second and perfect type of talk.
Our prophet’s mission has two ways: one from people to Allah, the other from Allah to people. One is the esoteric, saintly aspect of Ascension, the other is the apparent, prophetic aspect.
That is, the Prophet (pbuh) ascended to the presence of Allah on behalf of us and presented all of the worshipping, prayers, glorification and mentioning of Allah of human beings and all of the other beings to Allah as a whole just as a soldier reports to his commander. From this point of view, Miraj is ascension from people and beings to Allah. From another point of view, the Prophet brought us what Allah wants from, His slaves, us, His orders and prohibitions; like five prayers, the essence of all worshipping, as the gift of Ascension.
How can the Prophet (pbuh) talk to Allah?
Question:“What is the meaning of the Prophet’s talk to Allah, who is closer to us than everything, after traveling a distance that would take of thousands of years and after passing seventy thousand veils?”
God Almighty is closer to everything than everything else, but everything is limitlessly far from him. For instance, if the sun had a mind like man and wanted to talk to us, it would do so through a mirror in our hand. On the other hand, we get close to sun with our eye, which is a kind of mirror. As a matter of fact, the sun is 150 000.000 km away from us; we can never get close to it. In order to get one degree close to the sun, we should grow as big as the moon. That is impossible. As it is seen in the example, Allah is actually close to everything but everything is limitlessly far from him. However, by the grace of Allah, the Prophet (pbuh) ascended and reached the presence of Allah by traveling through thousands of veils in a moment and passing all spiritual levels.
How can a man ascend to heavens?
Question: “Is there an example of it? A plane can only fly 10-15 thousands meters high, a spaceship can only reach the moon or Venus. How can a man go to a distance of millions of meters and return in such a very short time as a few minutes?”
Our globe, that is the world, rotates a distance of about 188 hours in a minute; it covers the distance of twenty-five thousand years in a year. Can the Power that makes it cover great distances in a short time and rotate it like a catapult stone not take a man to the highest point of the heavens? Can the Wisdom that makes the earth, the very heavy thing, rotate round the sun not take the body of a man up to His throne like a lightning?
Could the Prophet not have traveled there only by his soul?
Question: "Why did he ascend? Why was it necessary? Would it not have been enough if he had ascended by his soul and heart?"
It is quite reasonable that Allah invited the Prophet (pbuh) there to show him the beauties of the visible and invisible realms, the factory of the universe and its center, the results of men’s deeds and worshipping in the hereafter. It was necessary for him to travel there not only by his soul and heart but also by his body.
It is a necessity of the intelligence and wisdom that his eye, which is the key of the visible world, and his ear, which is the key of the audible world, his body, which is like the tool and machine that undertakes numerous tasks of his soul, all had to go up to the throne of Allah with him.
Besides, God Almighty makes the body a friend of the soul. The body is the base for many tasks of worshipping, limitless pleasures and pains.
Therefore, the holy body will accompany the soul. Since the body will be together with the soul in Paradise, it is the very wisdom that the body of the Prophet (pbuh) will accompany his soul to the lote tree of the furthest point, which is the trunk of Paradise of Abode.
If our prophet had ascended by his soul only, it would not have been a miracle. Saints could ascend by their spirits and hearts to those realms.
How did the Prophet go and come back in such a short time?
Question:"Is it logically possible to go to and come back from a distance of thousands of years in a few minutes?"
The rate of movement and speed differs in the art of God Almighty. The speed of sound and the speed of light, the speed of electricity, and even the speed of soul and imagination are all completely different from one another. The speed of planets also differs. For instance, while the speed of light is 300.000 km/sec, the speed of sound is 360 km/sec.
How can it be logically impossible that the subtle body of our Prophet becomes subject to his soul and moves with the speed of the soul?
Sometimes when a man sleeps for only ten minutes, he may do something worth a year. When a dream a man sees, the words he hears in the dream, the words he utters in the dream are added, one day or maybe more can be necessary for them when he is awake.
That is, the periods of time can change from person to person; one day for a man may be like one year for another.
Thus, our Prophet (pbuh) rode on Buraq, traveled the universe like a lightning, reached the presence of Allah, attained the honor of talking to his Lord, saw His beauty, received His orders and returned.
Is there an event like Ascension?
Question:"It is possible for our Prophet to ascend. However, not all of the possible things take place. Is there anything similar to it so that we shall accept it?"
There are a lot of examples of Ascension: A man can ascend to the planet Neptune in a second with his eye. A scientist can reach behind the stars in a minute by riding the laws of astronomy. A believer can reach the divine presence by putting the actions in the prayer on his thought and riding past the universe, through a kind of ascension.
A saint whose eye of the heart is open can attain divine secrets in forty days. It is even reported that some saints like Abdulqadir Gaylani and Imam Rabbani reached the throne of Allah in a minute by their souls.
Angels, who have luminous bodies, go to the highest point of the heaven and come back in a moment.
In Paradise, believers can reach the gardens of Paradise in a very short time.
Those examples show that it is quite reasonable and doubtless that the sultan of all of the saints, the imam of all of the believers, the chief of all of the people of Paradise and the best accepted person by angels, the most honorable Messenger (pbuh) will ascend, travel and see all of the realms in a moment.
Gifts That were Sent down through Ascension
When we narrated how the miracle of Ascension took place, we mentioned the gifts that were sent down to us through Ascension. We would like to summarize the importance of those gifts for us here:
Firstly:The Prophet (pbuh) saw all of the realities of belief with his own eyes. He saw angels, Paradise, the hereafter, even the beauty of Allah with his eyes. That exalted person who never told a lie and who never broke a promise says the following to the souls of the believers spiritually:
“I saw angels, the hereafter that you believe, the luminous beauty of your Lord with my eyes; these fundamentals of belief are present, do not hesitate or doubt about them.”
Thus, believers attained the happiness of achieving such a limitless belief.
Secondly:Man is curious about everything. He searches whether there is life in the moon or not. As a matter of fact, the biggest stars occupy a space as tiny as a fly in the realm of that Pre-eternal Sultan. Believers wonder, “What does our Lord want from us? What should we do to make our Lord be pleased with us? If only we had the chance and talked to Allah and asked him what he wanted from us” While believers were wondering like that, the Chief of the two worlds, Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh) took the good deeds that the Pre-eternal and Post-eternal Sultan would be pleased with as the fruits of Ascension and presented them to man as gifts. These gifts are prayers, and other fundamentals and worshipping of Islam.
Thirdly:The Prophet (pbuh) obtained the key of the treasury of eternal happiness, and brought it as a gift to jinn and men. He saw Paradise with his own eyes and witnessed the existence of eternal happiness and informed us about the good news. When a man who is about to be hanged is forgiven and given a palace near the sultan, he becomes extremely happy.
Similarly, this good news for all of men and jinn is so important and valuable.
Fourthly:The Prophet (pbuh) had the blessing of seeing the beauty of Allah during Ascension. He brought the good news that believers would attain in Paradise. He said, “As you see the full moon clearly with your eyes so will you see your Lord clearly in Paradise.” , bringing that pre-eternal good news as a gift to us.”
Fifthly:Man's being the precious fruit of the universe and the petted beloved of the Owner of the Universe was understood through Ascension. This fruit raises man, who is a small being and a weak creature, to a rank so elevated that it confers on him a rank of pride above all the beings in the universe. If it is said to an ordinary private, "You have been promoted to the rank of field-marshal," how delighted he will be.Similarly, when it is said to the weak, eternal man who is always punished with separation and declining, “You will attain the mercy of the All-Compassionate and the Merciful One in an eternal never-ending Paradise”, he reaches such a great rank. In Paradise, he will make excursions and tours with the speed of imagination and breadth of the spirit and with the mind in accordance with all the desires of the heart in the eternal realm of Allah. He will also attain the blessing of seeing the beauty of Allah. Such a man’s heart and soul will definitely have so much joy. This fruit of Ascension is man’s greatest wish and goal.
Fayruzabadi, Qamusu'l-Muhit, V. 4, p. 343.
Ibn Athir, Nihaya, V. 3, p. 203.
Abu'l-Faraj Ibn Jawzi, al-Wafa, V. 1, p. 218; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 1, p. 1 48; Badruddin Ayni, Umdatu’l-Qari, V. 4, p. 39; Diyarbakri, Khamis, V. 1, p. 306.
Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, V. 1 , p. 214; Balazuri, V. 1 , p. 255; Bayhaqi, V. 2, p. 354; Ibn Abdilbarr, V. 1, p. 40; Abu'l-Faraj, V. 1, p. 219; Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 51; Qurtubi, Tafsir, V. 15, p. 216; Ibn Sayyid, V. 1 , p. 148; Abu’l-Fida, Tafsir, V. 3, p. 22; Badruddin Ayni, Umda, V. 4, p. 39.
 Abu'l-Faraj, V.1, p. 219.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 3, p. 148; Bukhari, V. 4, p. 248; Muslim, V. 1, p. 145; Tirmidhi, V. 5, p. 301; Bayhaqi, V. 2, p. 362-363; Baghawi, V. 2, p. 177; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 53; Abu’l-Fida, V. 3, p. 8.
Masaf, Sunan, V.1, p. 221-222; Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 52; Abu’l-Fida, Tafsir, V. 3, p. 6.
Nasai, V. 1, p. 222; Qadi Iyad, V. 1, p. 136.
Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, V. 1 ,p.214; Abu’l-Fida, al-Bidaya wa'n-Nihaya, V. 3, p. 109-110.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, V. 2, p. 39; Abu’l-Fida, V. 3, p. 110.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, c 2, p. 39; Abdurrazzaq, Musannaf, V. 5, p. 329; Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, V. 14, p. 302; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, V. 3, p. 148; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 4, p. 141; Muslim, Sahih, V. 1, p. 145; Tirmidhi, Sunan, V. 5, p. 300; Darimi, Sunan, V. 2, p. 36; Balazuri, Ansabu'l-Ashraf, V. 1, p. 256; Tabari, Tafsir, V. 15, p. 15; Bayhaqi, Dalail, V. 2, p. 387; Qadi Iyad, V. 1, p. 136; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 53; Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 52; Ibn Sayyid, V. 1, p. 144; Dhahabi, Tarikhu'l-Islam, p. 244, Abu’l-Fida, V. 3, p.109-110.
Abdurrazzaq, V. 5, p. 329; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 2, p. 282; Bukhari, V. 4, p. 141; Tirmidhi, V. 5, p. 300; Tabari, Tafsir, V.1 5, p. 12.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, V. 2, p. 39; Abu’l-Fida, V. 3, p. 110.
Muslim, Sahih, V. 1, p. 145; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 53; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 1, p. 144.
 Abdurrazzaq, V. 5, p. 330; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 4, p. 141; Tirmidhi, V. 5, p. 300; Tabari, Tafsir, V. 1 5, p. 15; Bayhaqi, V. 2, p. 357; Ibn Athir, V. 2, p. 52; Dhahabi, p. 244.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, V. 2, p. 39; Tabari, Tafsir, V. 15, p. 15; Abu’l-Fida, V. 3, p. 110.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, Sirah, V. 2, p. 45; Tabari, Tafsir, V. 15, p. 14; Abu’l-Fida, al-Bidaya wa'n-Nihaya, V. 3, p. 111; Qastalani, Mawahibu'l-Ladunniya, V. 2, p. 24.
Ibn Abi Shayba, V. 14, p. 303; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 3, p. 148; Muslim, Sahih, V. 1, p. 146; Bayhaqi, Dalailu'n-Nubuwwa, V. 2, p. 383; Baghawi, Masabihu's-Sunna, V. 2, p. 179; Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, V. 1, p. 137; Ibn Athir, Musannaf, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 53; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 1, p. 144.
Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, V. 14, p. 303-304; Ahmad b. Hanbal Musnad, V. 3, p. 148-149; Muslim, Sahih, V. 1 , p. 146-147; Bayhaqi, Dalailu'n-Nubuwwa, V. 2, p. 384; Baghawi, Masabihu's-Sunna, V. 2, p. 179; Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, V. 1, p. 137; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 53-54; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 1, p. 144.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 4, p. 207-208; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 4, p. 249.
Ibn Abi Shayba, V. 14, p. 304; Muslim, V. 1, p. 146; Tabari, V. 27, p. 54; Bayhaqi, V. 2, p. 384; Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, V. 1, p. 137; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 54; Ibn Sayyid, V. 1,p.144; Dhahabi, p. 266.
Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqatu'l-Kubra. V. 1, p. 213; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 1, p. 92; Muslim, Sahih, 11, p. 149; Bayhaqi, V. 2, p. 381; Qadi Iyad, V. 1, p.140, 148; Ibn Athir, V. 12, p. 56; Ibn Sayyid, V. 1.P.145; Dhahabi, p. 254.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 1, p. 449; Bukhari, V. 6, p. 51; Tabari, V. 27, p. 57, Bayhaqi, V. p. 372; Qurtubi, V. 17, p. 98.
Bukhari, V. 8, p. 204; Tabari, V. 27, p. 45; Ibn Athir, V. 12, p. 51; Ibn Qayyim, Zadu'l-Maad, V. 2, p. 53; Qurtubi, V. 17, p. 98; Dhahabi, p. 267; Abu’l-Fida, al-Bidaya wa'n-Nihaya, V. 3, p. 112.
Qadi Iyad, V. 1, p. 160; Diyarbakri, V. 1, p. 312.
Qadi Iyad, V. 1, p. 163.
Bukhari, Adhan: 148, 150; al-Amal Fi’s-Salat: 4, Isti’dhan: 3, 28, Da’awat: 16, Tawhid: 5; Muslim, Salat: 56, 60, 62; Abu Dawud, Salat: 178; Tirmidhi, Salat: 100, Nikah: 17; Nasai, Tatbiq: 23, Sahw: 41, 43-45, 56, 100-104; Ibn Majah, Iqama: 24; Nikah: 19; Darimi, Salat: 84, 92; Muwatta’, Nida’: 53, 55; Musnad, 1:292, 376, 382-4:409.
Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, Şualar, Altıncı Şua, p.92; On Beşinci Şua, p.642-646.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, V. 1, p. 422; Muslim , Sahih, V. 1, p. 157; Tirmidhi, Sunan, V. 5, p. 393-394; Nasai, Sunan, V. 1, p. 224; Bayhaqi, Dalailu'n-Nubuwwa, V. 2, p. 373; Baghawi, Masabihu's-Sunna, V. 2, p.179; Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, V. 1, p. 1 42; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 57; Qurtubi, V. 17, p. 94; Dhahabi, p. 255; Diyarbakri, Khamis, V. 1, p. 312.
Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, V. 14, p. 304; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 3, p. 149; Muslim, V. 1, p. 146-147; Bayhaqi, Dalail, V. 2, p. 384; Qadi Iyad.V.1, p. 138; Ibn Athir, V. 1 2, p. 54; Dhahabi, p. 266.
Bukhari, Sahih, V.1, p. 93; Muslim, Sahih, V. 1 ,p.149; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 57.
Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, V. 14, p. 304-305; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 3, p. 149; Muslim, V. 1, p. 147; Bayhaqi, V.2, p. 384; Qadi Iyad, V. 1, p.138; Ibn Athir, V. 12, p. 54.
Ibn Athir,Nihaya, V. 4. p.19.
Abdurrazzaq, Musannaf, V. 11 , p. 17; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 195; Muslim, Sahih, V. 1, p. 92; Bayhaqi, Sunanu'l-Kubra, V. 8, p. 20, 249.
Bukhari, Sahih, V. 1 , p. 93; Muslim , Sahih, V. 1, p. 149; Baghawi, Masabihu's-Sunna, V. 2, p. 179; Ibn Athir, Jamiu’l-Usul, V. 12, p. 57; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 1 , p. 145.
Aal-i Imran, 3/133.
Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 55.
Bukhari, V. 1, p. 93; Muslim, V. 1, p. 149; Baghawi, V. 2, p. 179; Ibn Athir, V. 12, p. 57; Ibn Sayyid, V. 1, p. 145; Dhahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam, p.260.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, V. 3, p. 263; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 6, p. 92; Tirmidhi, Sunan, V. 5, p. 449; Tabari, Tarikh, V. 2, p. 211.
Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 55.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, V. 3, p. 263; Bukhari, V. 6, p. 92; Tirmidhi, V. 5, p. 449; Tabari, V. 2, p. 211; Ibn Athir, V. 2, p. 55; Tirmizi, V.5, p. 450; Tabari, V. 2, p. 211; Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 55.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, Sirah, V.2, p. 45-46.
Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 55.
Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, V. 3, p. 210; Bukhari, Sahih, V. 5, p. 190; Tirmidhi, Sunan, V. 5, p. 557; Ibn Majah, Sunan, V. 2, p. 141; Darimi, Sunan, V. 2, p. 216; Hakim, Mustadrak, V. 4, p. 320; Bayhaqi, Sunanu'l-Kubra, V. 7, p. 52; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 2. p. 335; Dhahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam. p. 480.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, V. 2, p.43; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqatu'l-Kubra, V. 1, p. 214-215; Tabari, Tafsir, V. 15, p. 2; Dhahabi, Tarikhu'l-Islam, p. 272; Abu’l-Fida, V. 3, p. 110-111; Suyuti, Khasaisu'l-Kubra, V. 1, p. 439; Ibn Athir, Kamil, V. 2, p. 56.
Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqatu'l-Kubra, V. 1, p.214; Dhahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam, p. 272.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, Sirah, V. 2, p. 43; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, V. 1 , p. 215; Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, V. 1, p. 141; Dhahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam, p. 245-246; Abu’l-Fida, al-Bidaya wa'n-Nihaya, V. 3, p. 110.
Diyarbakri, Khamis, V. 1, p. 315-316; Abu’l-Fida, Tafsir, V. 3, p. 22; Ibn Athir, Kâmil, V. 2, p. 56-57; Ibn Sayyid, V.1, p. 142; Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisam, Sirah, V. 2, p. 44; Dhahabi, Tarikhu’l-Islam, p. 243; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqatu'l-Kubra, V. 1, p. 215.
Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, V. 14, p. 306; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, V. 1, p. 309; Abu'l-Faraj Ibn Jawzi, al-Wafa, V. 1 , p. 223; Dhahabi, Tarikhu'l-Islam, p. 250.
Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, V. 2, p. 39-40; Dhahabi, p. 248; Abu’l-Fida, Tafsir, V. 3, p.21.
Buhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Büyük Hadis Külliyatı-5, p. 416/10133
The miracle of Al Isra and Al-Mi^raj (The night journey and the ascension of prophet Muhammad)
(The night journey and the ascension of prophet Muhammad)
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of t he Worlds, the One Who exists without a place. To Him belong the endowments and proper commendations. May Allah raise the rank of Prophet Muhammad and his kind Al and Companions and protect his nation from what he fears for them. May the Lord of Heavens and Earth grant us the sincere intentions and guide us to the acceptable deeds.
Thereafter, Allah sent the prophets as a mercy to the slaves and supported them with miracles to indicate the truthfulness of their message. Of all the prophets, our Prophet, Muhammad, was blessed with the most miracles. Al-Isra' and al-Mi^raj are among the many miracles of Prophet Muhammad.
The miracle of al-Isra' is confirmed in the Qur'an. In Surat al-Isra', Ayah 1, Allah said:
which means: [Praise be to Allah Who enabled His slave, Muhammad, to make the journey at night from Masjid al-Haram in Makkah to Masjid al-Aqsain Jerusalem, which is surrounded by a blessed land.] This journey is also confirmed in the sahihhadith. As such, there is scholarly consensus (ijma^) Prophet Muhammad journeyed in body and soul the night of al-Isra' from Masjid al-Haram in Makkah to Masjid al-Aqsain Jerusalem. Moreover, these scholars indicated the person who denies al-Isra' is a blasphemer for belying the explicit text of the Qur'an.
Before the Prophet took this night journey, the ceiling of the house in which he was staying was opened, and Jibril descended. He cut open the chest of Prophet Muhammad and washed that open area with Zamzam water. Then he emptied something from a container into the chest of the Prophet to increase his wisdom as well as the strength of his belief. This was done to prepare the Messenger of Allah for that which he had yet to see in the upper world from among the wonders of the creation of Allah.
After the Prophet performed the Evening Prayer (^Isha'), Jibril came to him with a white animal, slightly larger than a donkey yet smaller than a mule. This animal was the buraq,--one of the animals of Paradise. Jibril held the buraqby his ear and told the Prophet to mount it. When the buraq was mounted, the Prophet set forth.
The buraq is a very fast animal; the length of the buraq's stride is the farthest distance it's eye can see. The Prophet and Jibril arrived to a land with palm trees. Jibril told the Prophet to dismount and pray, so the Prophet dismounted the buraq and prayed two rak^as. Jibril asked him, "Do you know where you prayed?" and the Prophet answered, "Allah knows best." Jibril told him, "This is Yathrib; this is Taybah. "." (These are two names for the city of al-Madinah.) Before the Prophet emigrated to al-Madinah, it was called Taybah and Yathrib. It earned the name al-Madinah after the Prophet emigrated to it.
The buraq continued with the Prophet and Jibril until they reached another place. Again Jibril told the Prophet to get down and pray. The Prophet dismounted there and prayed two rak^as. Jibril informed the Prophet of the name of that place; it was Tur Sina'.
Once again the buraq took off with the Prophet and Jibril. Once again it stopped, and the Prophet dismounted and prayed two rak^as. This was in Bayt Lahm, where Prophet ^Isa (Jesus) was born. Then the buraq continued with the Messenger of Allah until they entered the city of Jerusalem. There the Prophet went to Masjid al-Aqsa. Outside was a ring used by the Messengers of Allah to tie their animals. The Prophet tied his buraq to this ring. Then the Prophet entered the masjid where Allah assembled for him all the Prophets--from Adam to ^Isa. Prophet Muhammad moved forward and led them all in prayer. This is an indication the Prophet is higher in status than all the rest of the prophets and messengers.
1- On Prophet Muhammad's journey from Masjid al-Haram to Masjid al-Aqsa, Allah enabled him to see some of His wondrous creations. Allah enabled the Prophet to see the world (dunya) like an old woman. However, this old woman was wearing a great deal of jewelry, and in this there is an indication signifying the reality of the world.
2- Allah enabled the Prophet to see Iblis. The Prophet saw something on the side of the road which did not dare to stand in his way or speak to him. What the Prophet saw was Iblis. Originally, Iblis was a believer and lived with the angels in Paradise. When Allah ordered the angels to prostrate (sujud) to Prophet Adam, Iblis was ordered to prostrate to him as well. The angels prostrated to Adam in obedience to Allah, because angels do not disobey Allah. However, Iblis did not obey, and he objected to the order of Allah. He said, "You created me out of fire, and You created him out of clay. How do You order me to prostrate to him?" So this objection by Iblis to the order of Allah was the first blasphemy he committed.
3- On his journey, the Prophet smelled a very nice odor. He asked Jibril about this pleasant scent and Jibril informed him this good smell was coming from the grave of the woman whose duty used to be to comb Pharaoh's daughter's hair. This woman was a good, pious believer. One day, as she was combing Pharaoh's daughter's hair, the comb fell from her hand. At this she said, ""Bismillah. "Pharaoh's daughter asked her, "Do you have a god other than my father?" The woman said, "Yes. My Lord and the Lord of your father is Allah." Pharaoh's daughter told her father what had happened. Pharaoh demanded this woman blaspheme and leave Islam, but she refused. At that, Pharaoh threatened to kill her children. He brought a great pot of water and built a great fire under it. When the water boiled, Pharaoh brought her children and started to drop them into that pot one after the other. Throughout all this, the woman remained steadfast to Islam, even when Pharaoh reached her youngest child--a little boy still breast feeding--but she felt pity for him. At that, Allah enabled this child to speak. He said to his mother, "O Mother, be patient. The torture of the Hereafter is far more severe than the torture of this life, and do not be reluctant, because you are right." At this the woman requested Pharaoh collect her bones and the bones of her children and bury them in the same grave. Pharaoh promised her that--then dropped her into that boiling water. She died as a martyr. The good odor the Prophet smelled coming from her grave is an indication of her high status.
4- During his trip, the Prophet saw people who were planting and reaping in two days. Jibril told the Prophet, "These were the people who fight for the sake of Allah (mujahidun). ")."
5- The Prophet also saw people whose lips and tongues were clipped with scissors made of fire. Jibril told the Prophet, "These are the speakers of sedition (fitna) who call people to misguidance."
6- He also saw a bull which exited a very small outlet, then was trying in vain to return through that small outlet. Jibril told the Prophet, "This is the example of the bad word--once spoken, it cannot be returned."
7- The Prophet saw people grazing like animals, with very little clothing on their private parts. Jibril told the Prophet, "These are the ones who refused to pay zakat. "."
8- The Prophet saw angels smashing some people's heads with rocks. These heads would return to the shape they had been, and then the angels would smash their heads again--and so on. Jibril told the Prophet, "These are the ones whose heads felt too heavy to perform prayer--the ones who used to sleep without praying."
9- On his journey the Prophet saw people who were competing to eat some rotten meat--ignoring meat that was sliced and unspoiled. Jibril told the Prophet, "These are people from your nation who leave out that which is permissible (halal), and consume that which is forbidden ((haram). "This reference was to the fornicators, that is, the ones who left out the permissible (marriage) and committed sins (fornication).
10- Also, the Prophet saw people who were drinking from the fluid coming from the bodies of the fornicators, (water mixed with blood). Jibril indicated to the Prophet these were the ones who were drinking the alcohol which is prohibited in this world.
11- The Prophet saw people scratching their faces and chests with brass finger nails. Jibril said, "These are the examples of those who commit gossip ((ghibah). ")."
1- After the Prophet took this night journey from Masjid al-Haram to Masjid al-Aqsa, he ascended to the upper heavens. The Prophet ascended to the heaven on stairs, called al-mirqat, in which one step is made of gold and the next of silver, and so on. These stairs are veiled from us. The Prophet ascended these stairs until he reached the first heaven. When the Prophet and Jibril arrived at the first heaven, Jibril requested the gate to be opened. The angel assigned to that gate asked Jibril, "Who is with you?" Jibril answered, "It is Muhammad." The angel asked Jibril, "Was he dispatched? Is it time for him to ascend to the heaven?" Jibril said, "Yes." So, the gate was opened for him, and Prophet Muhammad entered the first heaven.
There, Prophet Muhammad saw ProphetAdam. To Adam's right, the Prophet saw some bodies, and to Adam’s left, other bodies. If Adam would look to his right he would laugh, and if he would look to his left he would cry. Adam was seeing the souls of his descendants. Those on his right were his descendants who would die as believers and those on his left were his descendants who would die as non-believers.
Then the Prophet ascended to the second heaven. In this second heaven was where Prophet Muhammad saw Prophets ^Isa and Yahya. ^Isa and Yahya are cousins; their mothers were sisters. They welcomed the Prophet and made supplication (du^a') for him for good things. The Prophet ascended to the third heaven, where he found Prophet Yusuf. Prophet Yusuf was extremely handsome. Allah bestowed half the beauty on Yusuf. Yusuf received the Prophet with a warm welcome and made supplication (du^a') for him for good things.
Then the Prophet ascended to the fourth heaven, where he found Prophet Idris. Idris welcomed the Prophet and made supplication (du^a') for him for good things. In the fifth heaven, the Prophet encountered Harun, the brother of Prophet Musa. In the sixth heaven, he encountered Prophet Musa. Each of these Prophets received Prophet Muhammad with a warm welcome and made supplication (du^a')') for him for good things.
Then the Prophet ascended to the seventh heaven, and that is where our Messenger saw Prophet Ibrahim. Prophet Ibrahim is the best of the prophets after our prophet, Muhammad. The Prophet saw Prophet Ibrahim with his back against al-Bayt al-Ma^mur. To the inhabitants of the skies, al-Bayt al-Ma^mur is like the Ka^bah is to us, the inhabitants of the earth. Every day 70,000 angels go there; then exit from it, and never return. The next day another 70,000 angels go, come out, and never return. This will continue until the Day of Judgment. In this, there is an indication as to the greatness of the numbers of the angels--their numbers are far more than the numbers of the humans and the jinns together.
In the seventh heaven, Prophet Muhammad saw Sidrat al-Muntaha--a very big tree of sidr. Each of the fruits of this tree is as large as a big jar. The leaves of this tree are similar to the ears of the elephants. Sidrat al-Muntahais an extremely beautiful tree. It is visited by butterflies made of gold. When these butterflies gather on this tree, its beauty is beyond description.
Then the Prophet ascended to what is beyond the seven skies; he entered Paradise. He saw examples of the inhabitants of Paradise and how their situation would be. He saw most of the inhabitants of Paradise are the poor people .
The Prophet saw other things on the night of his ascension. He saw Malik, the angel in charge of the Hellfire. Malik did not smile at the Prophet when he saw him, and the Prophet asked why. In answer to the Prophet's question, Jibril said, "Malik did not smile since the day Allah created him. Had he smiled for anyone, he would have smiled for you."
In Paradise, the Prophet saw some of the bounties Allah prepared for the inhabitants of Paradise. He saw the Hur ul-^In: females Allah created who are not humans or jinn. They are in Paradise and will be married to those men Allah willed them to marry.
The Prophet saw the wildan ul-mukhalladun: creations of Allah who are not human, jinn, or angels. They are a very beautiful creation of Allah whose appearance is like laid-out pearls. They are servants of the inhabitants of Paradise. The least in status of the People of Paradise will have 10,000 wildan ul-mukhalladun to serve him. Each one of them would carry a tray of gold in one hand and a tray of silver in the other hand.
The Prophet saw the Throne (^Arsh), which is the ceiling of Paradise. The Throne is the largest creation of Allah in size; Allah did not create anything bigger in size than it. The seven heavens and the earth in comparison to the Kursiyy, are like a ring thrown in a desert, and the Kursiyy in comparison to the Throne, is like a ring thrown in a desert. The seven heavens and the earth in comparison to the Throne are like a seed of mustard compared to the ocean. Allah created the Throne as a sign of His Power and He did not create the Throne to sit on it.
Allah created the Throne to show His Power. It is carried by four angels, and on the Day of Judgment, it will be carried by eight. The Prophet said he was permitted to speak about one of these angels who carry the Throne. In describing this angel, the Prophet told us the distance between his ear lobe and shoulder is the distance a fast-flying bird would cover in 700 years.
Then the Prophet ascended beyond Paradise. He reached a place where he heard the creaking of the pens used by the angels who are copying from the Preserved Tablet. It is at that location Prophet Muhammad heard the Kalam of Allah, which is an attribute of the Self of Allah. He heard the Kalam of Allah which does not resemble our speech--so it is not something that occurs bit after bit. It is not letter after letter or a word that comes after another word. Rather, it is an attribute of Allah which is eternal and everlasting. It does not resemble our attributes. The Kalam of Allah has neither silence nor interruptions. It is an attribute of Allah, and it does not resemble the attributes of the creation.
The Prophet understood several things from hearing this Kalam of Allah. He understood the obligation of the five Obligatory Prayers. At first, Allah obligated fifty prayers. When Prophet Muhammad encountered Musa, Musa told him to make supplication (du^a') to his Lord to ease the obligation of fifty (50) prayers, because his nation could not handle that. Musa said, "I have experience with the people of Israel, and I know your nation cannot bear that." So the Prophet asked his Lord to lessen these prayers for his people. Five prayers were eliminated. Once again, Musa told the Prophet to ask Allah to lessen the number of prayers. Allah did. Nine times the Prophet made supplication to Allah to lessen these prayers--until these prayers were lessened to five Obligatory Prayers. So Prophet Musa was a great benefit to us. Had we been obligated to pray fifty prayers a day, this would have been a difficult matter for us.
From the Kalam of Allah, the Prophet also understood that a good deed would be written for the person who intends to do a good deed, even if he did not do it. Also, the good deed performed would be registered for he who performs it as at least ten good deeds--up to 700 good deeds. For some people, Allah would multiply the reward of their deeds more than that. Additionally, if one performs a bad deed, it is registered for him as one bad deed; yet for he who inclines towards committing a bad deed and then refrains from committing it, a good deed would be registered for him. Here one should note the difference between two matters. If a thought crossed a person's mind about doing something sinful, and this person wavered in this thinking, i.e., considered whether he should do it or not, then he refrained from doing this for the sake of Allah, this is written as a good deed. However, if a person has the firm intention in his heart that he wants to commit a sin, it would be written for him as a sin, even if he does not do it.
The Prophet Returns to Makkah
After all these matters took place with the Prophet, he returned to the city of Makkah. Some scholars said the Prophet's journey took about one-third of the night, i.e., his journey from Makkah to Jerusalem, then to the heavens and what is above them, and then back to Makkah The next day the Prophet told the people what happened to him the previous night. The blasphemers belied the Prophet and mocked him, saying, "We need a month to get there and back, and you are claiming to have done all this in one night?" They said to Abu Bakr, "Look at what your companion is saying. He says he went to Jerusalem and came back in one night." Abu Bakr told them, "If he said that, then he is truthful. I believe him concerning the news of the heavens--that an angel descends to him from the heavens. How could I not believe he went to Jerusalem and came back in a short period of time--when these are on earth?" At that, the Companion, Abu Bakr, was called "as-Siddiq"--because of how strongly he believed all what the Prophet said.
The blasphemous people questioned the Prophet: "If you are truthful, then describe to us Masjid al-Aqsa and its surroundings." They asked this because they knew Prophet Muhammad had never been there before the previous night. Allah enabled the Messenger to see Masjid al-Aqsa, and he described the masjid and its surroundings in exact detail. Moreover, the Prophet said, "On my way back, I saw some of your shepherds grazing their animals in a particular location. They were searching for a camel they had lost." The Prophet continued by giving the description of the camel. When these shepherds came back, they told their people what happened to them--precisely as the Prophet had already told them.
These blasphemers admitted the Prophet's description was exact. Despite that, they were still stubborn and rejected the faith. They did not accept Islam. Only those whom Allah willed to be guided, will be guided. The person whom Allah did not will to be guided, will not believe--regardless of how much explanation or how many proofs he is shown. The person whom Allah willed to be guided, surely he will be a believer. Many people witnessed miracles and still did not believe. Many people witnessed the miracle of the Prophet's splitting of the moon. Those who refused to embrace Islam said, "This is magic. Muhammad played a magic trick on our eyes." They even asked the people of a faraway land who witnessed the moon split in two. Despite this, they still did not believe. They said, "The magic of Muhammad is powerful; it even reached the faraway lands!" This was their response to witnessing a miracle--instead of believing and becoming Muslims.
We ask Allah that we would all die as Muslims. We ask Allah to bestow on us the bounty of entering Paradise without torture.
And Allah knows best.