This guide provides basic guidelines and examples for common citation styles used at Davidson College. When citing sources, always defer to the citation style required by your department or professor. You may need to consult thefull style manualor consult a librarian for complex citation questions.
Note: Throughout this guide you will find examples of how to cite online sources (ebooks, online journal articles, etc.). These rules are subject to change when citation styles are revised, so be sure to consult the most recent edition of a given citation manual.
(American Anthropological Association). Used exclusively in anthropology. Based on the Chicago Manual of Style.
(American Chemical Society) Specialized citation style used in chemistry.
(American Medical Association) Citation style used primarily in medical writing.
(American Psychological Association) Used primarily in psychology and sociology.
- Chicago: Notes & Bibliography
(Documentation I) Used primarily in the humanities, especially in history. The Turabian style is based on the most recent edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
- Chicago: Author-Date
(Documentation II) Used primarily in the social sciences, especially economics and political science. Refer to this section for citing in APSA style (American Political Science Association) because APSA is adapted from the Chicago Author-Date style.
(Council of Science Editors, formerly Council of Biology Editors) Used in various science disciplines, including physical and life sciences.
(Modern Language Association) Used primarily in English and the humanities.
Davidson College Archival Sources
Style Manuals & Guides
Ask the MLAin-text citationsusing sourcesworks-cited list
How do I distinguish works by an author that have the same title?
The eighth edition of the MLAHandbook recommends brevity and clarity in an in-text citation (116)—brevity so that a reference won’t obstruct the flow of reading and clarity so that the reader can easily find the corresponding entry in the works-cited list. If you cite two works by the same author, you must provide a short title in your in-text citation, and if two or more works by an author have the same title, additional information is needed so that the reference, if not quite as brief, will be clear.
You should usually include the first unique piece of information. Insert the information in square brackets:
The documentation gave him a “dull but persistent headache” (Curse [3rd ed.] 45).
In reply, Fustian remarked, “Excuse me?” (“Could” [Portland Gazette] 5).
He repeated, over and over, “Jag förstår inte” (Förbannelsen [translated by Flint] 899).
“Sometimes you just have to . . . spell it out” (SelectedWorks [edited by Prolix et al.] 278).
In some specialized works, however, where a particular piece of information is especially relevant to your discussion, you might decide to use that information instead. For example, in an essay on how editions of Othello have changed over time, the year of publication might be the clearest and most important information to give.
Fustian, Sebastian. “Could You Make That a Little Clearer?” Gallimaufry, 7 June 1994, www.gallimaufry.com.
———. “Could You Make That a Little Clearer?” Portland Gazette, vol. 10, no. 3, 1994, pp. 5–6.
———. The Curse of Uncertainty. 2nd ed., U of Florida P, 2015.
———. The Curse of Uncertainty. 3rd ed., Gotham Press, 2016. Critical Mess 7.
———. Förbannelsen av Osäkerhet. Translated by Gerulphus Flint, Röra Books, 2014.
———. Förbannelsen av Osäkerhet. Translated by Sandra Scramble, U of Stockholm, 2012.
———. Selected Works of Fustian. Edited by Rosalind Word Bloat and Jeremy Arcane, Important Press, 2015.
———. Selected Works of Fustian. Edited by Edmund Prolix et al., Recondite UP, 2011.
Van Der Konzeiss, Vladimir, and Phineas Succinct. “Why We Cannot Stand Fustian.” The Old City Times, 15 Jan. 2015, pp. 8–12.
Work CitedMLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
Published 7 December 2016