Milbrey Mclaughlin Bibliography For Websites

American high schools have never been under more pressure to reform: student populations are more diverse than ever, resources are limited, and teachers are expected to teach to high standards for all students. While many reformers look for change at the state or district level, the authors here argue that the most local contexts—schools, departments, and communities—matter the most to how well teachers perform in the classroom and how satisfied they are professionally. Their findings—based on one of the most extensive research projects ever done on secondary teaching—show that departmental cultures play a crucial role in classroom settings and expectations. In the same school, for example, social studies teachers described their students as "apathetic and unwilling to work," while English teachers described the same students as "bright, interesting, and energetic."

With wide-ranging implications for educational practice and policy, this unprecedented look into teacher communities is essential reading for educators, administrators, and all those concerned with U. S. High Schools.

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Murphy, P.K. & Woods, B.S. (1996, April). Of squalls and fathoms: Navigating the seas of educational innovation. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 31-36.
  • Ashby, D.E., Maki, D.M. & Cunningham-Morris, A. (1996, Winter). Organization development: Using data for decision making. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 8-11.
  • Astuto, T.A., Clark, D.L., Read, A-M., McGree, K. & Fernandez, L.deK.P. (1993). Challenges to dominant assumptions controlling educational reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
  • Avila, L., Van Tassell, F., Dixon, M. & Tipps, S. (1995, March). Texas adopts new standards for educator preparation. Educational Leadership, 52(6), 68-71.
  • Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994a). Principals and the new paradigm: Schools as learning communities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994b). Schools as learning communities. Issues ... about Change, 4(1). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyer, E.L. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Brandt, R. (1992, September). On building learning communities: A conversation with Hank Levin. Educational Leadership, 50(1), 19-23.
  • Brandt, R. (1995, November). On restructuring schools: A conversation with Fred Newmann. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 70-73.
  • Brandt, R. (1996, March). On a new direction for teacher evaluation: A conversation with Tom McGreal. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 30-33.
  • Bryk, A.S., Easton, J.Q., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S.G. & Sebring, P.A. (1994, September). The state of Chicago school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(1), 74-78.
  • Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Carmichael, L. (1982, October). Leaders as learners: A possible dream. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 58-59.
  • Corcoran, T.B. (1995, June). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional development. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1993, June). Reframing the school reform agenda. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(10), 752-761.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1994, November). The current status of teaching and teacher development in the United States. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring, in Ann Lieberman (ed.), The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1996, March). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 4-10.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995, April). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  • Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Donahoe, T. (1993, December). Finding the way: Structure, time, and culture in school improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 298-305.
  • Fawcett, G. (1996, Winter). Moving another big desk. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 34-36.
  • Floden, R., Goertz, M. & O'Day, J. (1995, September). Capacity building in systemic reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(1), 19-21.
  • Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Fullan, M. (1994). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform, in Richard F. Elmore & Susan H. Fuhrman (eds.), The governance of curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 186-202.
  • Fullan, M. with Suzanne Stiegelbauer. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Galagan, P. (1994, December). Reinventing the profession. Training and Development, 48(12), 20-27.
  • Gamson, Z. (1994, September). Collaborative learning comes of age. Change, 26(5), 44-49.
  • Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1995, April). Adaptive schools in a quantum universe. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 6-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. & Peterson, K.D. (1996, December/January). The road to classroom change. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 10-14.
  • Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hallinger, P., Chantarapanya, P., Taraseina, P. & Srliboonma, U. (1996, Winter). Nourishing the spirit: The role of ritual in building communities of learners. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 22-26.
  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


Next Page: Credits and Disclaimer

Published in Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Murphy, P.K. & Woods, B.S. (1996, April). Of squalls and fathoms: Navigating the seas of educational innovation. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 31-36.
  • Ashby, D.E., Maki, D.M. & Cunningham-Morris, A. (1996, Winter). Organization development: Using data for decision making. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 8-11.
  • Astuto, T.A., Clark, D.L., Read, A-M., McGree, K. & Fernandez, L.deK.P. (1993). Challenges to dominant assumptions controlling educational reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
  • Avila, L., Van Tassell, F., Dixon, M. & Tipps, S. (1995, March). Texas adopts new standards for educator preparation. Educational Leadership, 52(6), 68-71.
  • Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994a). Principals and the new paradigm: Schools as learning communities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994b). Schools as learning communities. Issues ... about Change, 4(1). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyer, E.L. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Brandt, R. (1992, September). On building learning communities: A conversation with Hank Levin. Educational Leadership, 50(1), 19-23.
  • Brandt, R. (1995, November). On restructuring schools: A conversation with Fred Newmann. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 70-73.
  • Brandt, R. (1996, March). On a new direction for teacher evaluation: A conversation with Tom McGreal. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 30-33.
  • Bryk, A.S., Easton, J.Q., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S.G. & Sebring, P.A. (1994, September). The state of Chicago school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(1), 74-78.
  • Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Carmichael, L. (1982, October). Leaders as learners: A possible dream. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 58-59.
  • Corcoran, T.B. (1995, June). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional development. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1993, June). Reframing the school reform agenda. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(10), 752-761.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1994, November). The current status of teaching and teacher development in the United States. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring, in Ann Lieberman (ed.), The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1996, March). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 4-10.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995, April). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  • Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Donahoe, T. (1993, December). Finding the way: Structure, time, and culture in school improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 298-305.
  • Fawcett, G. (1996, Winter). Moving another big desk. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 34-36.
  • Floden, R., Goertz, M. & O'Day, J. (1995, September). Capacity building in systemic reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(1), 19-21.
  • Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Fullan, M. (1994). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform, in Richard F. Elmore & Susan H. Fuhrman (eds.), The governance of curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 186-202.
  • Fullan, M. with Suzanne Stiegelbauer. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Galagan, P. (1994, December). Reinventing the profession. Training and Development, 48(12), 20-27.
  • Gamson, Z. (1994, September). Collaborative learning comes of age. Change, 26(5), 44-49.
  • Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1995, April). Adaptive schools in a quantum universe. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 6-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. & Peterson, K.D. (1996, December/January). The road to classroom change. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 10-14.
  • Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hallinger, P., Chantarapanya, P., Taraseina, P. & Srliboonma, U. (1996, Winter). Nourishing the spirit: The role of ritual in building communities of learners. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 22-26.
  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


Next Page: Credits and Disclaimer

Published in Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Murphy, P.K. & Woods, B.S. (1996, April). Of squalls and fathoms: Navigating the seas of educational innovation. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 31-36.
  • Ashby, D.E., Maki, D.M. & Cunningham-Morris, A. (1996, Winter). Organization development: Using data for decision making. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 8-11.
  • Astuto, T.A., Clark, D.L., Read, A-M., McGree, K. & Fernandez, L.deK.P. (1993). Challenges to dominant assumptions controlling educational reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
  • Avila, L., Van Tassell, F., Dixon, M. & Tipps, S. (1995, March). Texas adopts new standards for educator preparation. Educational Leadership, 52(6), 68-71.
  • Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994a). Principals and the new paradigm: Schools as learning communities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994b). Schools as learning communities. Issues ... about Change, 4(1). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyer, E.L. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Brandt, R. (1992, September). On building learning communities: A conversation with Hank Levin. Educational Leadership, 50(1), 19-23.
  • Brandt, R. (1995, November). On restructuring schools: A conversation with Fred Newmann. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 70-73.
  • Brandt, R. (1996, March). On a new direction for teacher evaluation: A conversation with Tom McGreal. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 30-33.
  • Bryk, A.S., Easton, J.Q., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S.G. & Sebring, P.A. (1994, September). The state of Chicago school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(1), 74-78.
  • Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Carmichael, L. (1982, October). Leaders as learners: A possible dream. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 58-59.
  • Corcoran, T.B. (1995, June). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional development. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1993, June). Reframing the school reform agenda. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(10), 752-761.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1994, November). The current status of teaching and teacher development in the United States. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring, in Ann Lieberman (ed.), The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1996, March). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 4-10.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995, April). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  • Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Donahoe, T. (1993, December). Finding the way: Structure, time, and culture in school improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 298-305.
  • Fawcett, G. (1996, Winter). Moving another big desk. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 34-36.
  • Floden, R., Goertz, M. & O'Day, J. (1995, September). Capacity building in systemic reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(1), 19-21.
  • Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Fullan, M. (1994). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform, in Richard F. Elmore & Susan H. Fuhrman (eds.), The governance of curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 186-202.
  • Fullan, M. with Suzanne Stiegelbauer. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Galagan, P. (1994, December). Reinventing the profession. Training and Development, 48(12), 20-27.
  • Gamson, Z. (1994, September). Collaborative learning comes of age. Change, 26(5), 44-49.
  • Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1995, April). Adaptive schools in a quantum universe. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 6-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. & Peterson, K.D. (1996, December/January). The road to classroom change. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 10-14.
  • Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hallinger, P., Chantarapanya, P., Taraseina, P. & Srliboonma, U. (1996, Winter). Nourishing the spirit: The role of ritual in building communities of learners. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 22-26.
  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


Next Page: Credits and Disclaimer

Published in Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Murphy, P.K. & Woods, B.S. (1996, April). Of squalls and fathoms: Navigating the seas of educational innovation. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 31-36.
  • Ashby, D.E., Maki, D.M. & Cunningham-Morris, A. (1996, Winter). Organization development: Using data for decision making. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 8-11.
  • Astuto, T.A., Clark, D.L., Read, A-M., McGree, K. & Fernandez, L.deK.P. (1993). Challenges to dominant assumptions controlling educational reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
  • Avila, L., Van Tassell, F., Dixon, M. & Tipps, S. (1995, March). Texas adopts new standards for educator preparation. Educational Leadership, 52(6), 68-71.
  • Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994a). Principals and the new paradigm: Schools as learning communities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994b). Schools as learning communities. Issues ... about Change, 4(1). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyer, E.L. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Brandt, R. (1992, September). On building learning communities: A conversation with Hank Levin. Educational Leadership, 50(1), 19-23.
  • Brandt, R. (1995, November). On restructuring schools: A conversation with Fred Newmann. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 70-73.
  • Brandt, R. (1996, March). On a new direction for teacher evaluation: A conversation with Tom McGreal. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 30-33.
  • Bryk, A.S., Easton, J.Q., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S.G. & Sebring, P.A. (1994, September). The state of Chicago school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(1), 74-78.
  • Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Carmichael, L. (1982, October). Leaders as learners: A possible dream. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 58-59.
  • Corcoran, T.B. (1995, June). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional development. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1993, June). Reframing the school reform agenda. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(10), 752-761.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1994, November). The current status of teaching and teacher development in the United States. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring, in Ann Lieberman (ed.), The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1996, March). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 4-10.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995, April). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  • Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Donahoe, T. (1993, December). Finding the way: Structure, time, and culture in school improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 298-305.
  • Fawcett, G. (1996, Winter). Moving another big desk. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 34-36.
  • Floden, R., Goertz, M. & O'Day, J. (1995, September). Capacity building in systemic reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(1), 19-21.
  • Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Fullan, M. (1994). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform, in Richard F. Elmore & Susan H. Fuhrman (eds.), The governance of curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 186-202.
  • Fullan, M. with Suzanne Stiegelbauer. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Galagan, P. (1994, December). Reinventing the profession. Training and Development, 48(12), 20-27.
  • Gamson, Z. (1994, September). Collaborative learning comes of age. Change, 26(5), 44-49.
  • Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1995, April). Adaptive schools in a quantum universe. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 6-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. & Peterson, K.D. (1996, December/January). The road to classroom change. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 10-14.
  • Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hallinger, P., Chantarapanya, P., Taraseina, P. & Srliboonma, U. (1996, Winter). Nourishing the spirit: The role of ritual in building communities of learners. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 22-26.
  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


Next Page: Credits and Disclaimer

Published in Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Murphy, P.K. & Woods, B.S. (1996, April). Of squalls and fathoms: Navigating the seas of educational innovation. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 31-36.
  • Ashby, D.E., Maki, D.M. & Cunningham-Morris, A. (1996, Winter). Organization development: Using data for decision making. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 8-11.
  • Astuto, T.A., Clark, D.L., Read, A-M., McGree, K. & Fernandez, L.deK.P. (1993). Challenges to dominant assumptions controlling educational reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
  • Avila, L., Van Tassell, F., Dixon, M. & Tipps, S. (1995, March). Texas adopts new standards for educator preparation. Educational Leadership, 52(6), 68-71.
  • Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994a). Principals and the new paradigm: Schools as learning communities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994b). Schools as learning communities. Issues ... about Change, 4(1). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyer, E.L. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Brandt, R. (1992, September). On building learning communities: A conversation with Hank Levin. Educational Leadership, 50(1), 19-23.
  • Brandt, R. (1995, November). On restructuring schools: A conversation with Fred Newmann. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 70-73.
  • Brandt, R. (1996, March). On a new direction for teacher evaluation: A conversation with Tom McGreal. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 30-33.
  • Bryk, A.S., Easton, J.Q., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S.G. & Sebring, P.A. (1994, September). The state of Chicago school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(1), 74-78.
  • Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Carmichael, L. (1982, October). Leaders as learners: A possible dream. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 58-59.
  • Corcoran, T.B. (1995, June). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional development. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1993, June). Reframing the school reform agenda. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(10), 752-761.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1994, November). The current status of teaching and teacher development in the United States. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring, in Ann Lieberman (ed.), The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1996, March). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 4-10.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995, April). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  • Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Donahoe, T. (1993, December). Finding the way: Structure, time, and culture in school improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 298-305.
  • Fawcett, G. (1996, Winter). Moving another big desk. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 34-36.
  • Floden, R., Goertz, M. & O'Day, J. (1995, September). Capacity building in systemic reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(1), 19-21.
  • Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Fullan, M. (1994). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform, in Richard F. Elmore & Susan H. Fuhrman (eds.), The governance of curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 186-202.
  • Fullan, M. with Suzanne Stiegelbauer. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Galagan, P. (1994, December). Reinventing the profession. Training and Development, 48(12), 20-27.
  • Gamson, Z. (1994, September). Collaborative learning comes of age. Change, 26(5), 44-49.
  • Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1995, April). Adaptive schools in a quantum universe. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 6-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. & Peterson, K.D. (1996, December/January). The road to classroom change. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 10-14.
  • Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hallinger, P., Chantarapanya, P., Taraseina, P. & Srliboonma, U. (1996, Winter). Nourishing the spirit: The role of ritual in building communities of learners. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 22-26.
  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


Next Page: Credits and Disclaimer

Published in Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Murphy, P.K. & Woods, B.S. (1996, April). Of squalls and fathoms: Navigating the seas of educational innovation. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 31-36.
  • Ashby, D.E., Maki, D.M. & Cunningham-Morris, A. (1996, Winter). Organization development: Using data for decision making. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 8-11.
  • Astuto, T.A., Clark, D.L., Read, A-M., McGree, K. & Fernandez, L.deK.P. (1993). Challenges to dominant assumptions controlling educational reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
  • Avila, L., Van Tassell, F., Dixon, M. & Tipps, S. (1995, March). Texas adopts new standards for educator preparation. Educational Leadership, 52(6), 68-71.
  • Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994a). Principals and the new paradigm: Schools as learning communities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994b). Schools as learning communities. Issues ... about Change, 4(1). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyer, E.L. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Brandt, R. (1992, September). On building learning communities: A conversation with Hank Levin. Educational Leadership, 50(1), 19-23.
  • Brandt, R. (1995, November). On restructuring schools: A conversation with Fred Newmann. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 70-73.
  • Brandt, R. (1996, March). On a new direction for teacher evaluation: A conversation with Tom McGreal. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 30-33.
  • Bryk, A.S., Easton, J.Q., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S.G. & Sebring, P.A. (1994, September). The state of Chicago school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(1), 74-78.
  • Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Carmichael, L. (1982, October). Leaders as learners: A possible dream. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 58-59.
  • Corcoran, T.B. (1995, June). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional development. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1993, June). Reframing the school reform agenda. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(10), 752-761.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1994, November). The current status of teaching and teacher development in the United States. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring, in Ann Lieberman (ed.), The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1996, March). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 4-10.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995, April). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  • Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Donahoe, T. (1993, December). Finding the way: Structure, time, and culture in school improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 298-305.
  • Fawcett, G. (1996, Winter). Moving another big desk. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 34-36.
  • Floden, R., Goertz, M. & O'Day, J. (1995, September). Capacity building in systemic reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(1), 19-21.
  • Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Fullan, M. (1994). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform, in Richard F. Elmore & Susan H. Fuhrman (eds.), The governance of curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 186-202.
  • Fullan, M. with Suzanne Stiegelbauer. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Galagan, P. (1994, December). Reinventing the profession. Training and Development, 48(12), 20-27.
  • Gamson, Z. (1994, September). Collaborative learning comes of age. Change, 26(5), 44-49.
  • Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1995, April). Adaptive schools in a quantum universe. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 6-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. & Peterson, K.D. (1996, December/January). The road to classroom change. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 10-14.
  • Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hallinger, P., Chantarapanya, P., Taraseina, P. & Srliboonma, U. (1996, Winter). Nourishing the spirit: The role of ritual in building communities of learners. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 22-26.
  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


Next Page: Credits and Disclaimer

Published in Professional Learning Communities: Communities of Continuous Inquiry and Improvement

References

  • Alexander, P.A., Murphy, P.K. & Woods, B.S. (1996, April). Of squalls and fathoms: Navigating the seas of educational innovation. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 31-36.
  • Ashby, D.E., Maki, D.M. & Cunningham-Morris, A. (1996, Winter). Organization development: Using data for decision making. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 8-11.
  • Astuto, T.A., Clark, D.L., Read, A-M., McGree, K. & Fernandez, L.deK.P. (1993). Challenges to dominant assumptions controlling educational reform. Andover, MA: Regional Laboratory for the Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands.
  • Avila, L., Van Tassell, F., Dixon, M. & Tipps, S. (1995, March). Texas adopts new standards for educator preparation. Educational Leadership, 52(6), 68-71.
  • Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
  • Boyd, V. (1992). School context: Bridge or barrier to change? Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994a). Principals and the new paradigm: Schools as learning communities. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.
  • Boyd, V. & Hord, S.M. (1994b). Schools as learning communities. Issues ... about Change, 4(1). Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
  • Boyer, E.L. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
  • Brandt, R. (1992, September). On building learning communities: A conversation with Hank Levin. Educational Leadership, 50(1), 19-23.
  • Brandt, R. (1995, November). On restructuring schools: A conversation with Fred Newmann. Educational Leadership, 53(3), 70-73.
  • Brandt, R. (1996, March). On a new direction for teacher evaluation: A conversation with Tom McGreal. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 30-33.
  • Bryk, A.S., Easton, J.Q., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S.G. & Sebring, P.A. (1994, September). The state of Chicago school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(1), 74-78.
  • Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Carmichael, L. (1982, October). Leaders as learners: A possible dream. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 58-59.
  • Corcoran, T.B. (1995, June). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional development. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1993, June). Reframing the school reform agenda. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(10), 752-761.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1994, November). The current status of teaching and teacher development in the United States. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1995). Policy for restructuring, in Ann Lieberman (ed.), The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (1996, March). The quiet revolution: Rethinking teacher development. Educational Leadership, 53(6), 4-10.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1995, April). Policies that support professional development in an era of reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 597-604.
  • Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Donahoe, T. (1993, December). Finding the way: Structure, time, and culture in school improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 298-305.
  • Fawcett, G. (1996, Winter). Moving another big desk. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 34-36.
  • Floden, R., Goertz, M. & O'Day, J. (1995, September). Capacity building in systemic reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(1), 19-21.
  • Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Fullan, M. (1994). Coordinating top-down and bottom-up strategies for educational reform, in Richard F. Elmore & Susan H. Fuhrman (eds.), The governance of curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 186-202.
  • Fullan, M. with Suzanne Stiegelbauer. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Galagan, P. (1994, December). Reinventing the profession. Training and Development, 48(12), 20-27.
  • Gamson, Z. (1994, September). Collaborative learning comes of age. Change, 26(5), 44-49.
  • Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1995, April). Adaptive schools in a quantum universe. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 6-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. (1986, May). Staff development and the process of teacher change. Educational Researcher, 15(5), 5-12.
  • Guskey, T.R. & Peterson, K.D. (1996, December/January). The road to classroom change. Educational Leadership, 53(4), 10-14.
  • Hall, G.E. & Hord, S.M. (1987). Change in schools: Facilitating the Process. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Hallinger, P., Chantarapanya, P., Taraseina, P. & Srliboonma, U. (1996, Winter). Nourishing the spirit: The role of ritual in building communities of learners. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 22-26.
  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


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References

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  • Hoerr, T.R. (1996, January). Collegiality: A new way to define instructional leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(5), 380-381.
  • Hord, S.M. & Boyd, V. (1995, Winter). Staff development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
  • Isaacson, N. & Bamburg, J. (1992, November). Can schools become learning organizations? Educational Leadership, 50(3), 42-44.
  • Jalongo, M.R. (1991). Creating learning communities: The role of the teacher in the twenty-first century. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.
  • Joyce, B. & Calhoun, E. (1995, April). School renewal: An inquiry, not a formula. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 51-55.
  • Kleine-Kracht, P.A. (1993, July). The principal in a community of learning. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 391-399.
  • Lee, V.E., Smith, J.B. & Croninger, R.G. (1995, Fall). Another look at high school restructuring. Issues in restructuring schools. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Leithwood, K., Leonard, L. & Sharratt, L. (1997). Conditions fostering organizational learning in schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress on School Effectiveness and Improvement, Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Lieberman, A. (1995a, April). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(8), 591-596.
  • Lieberman, A. (ed.). (1995b). The work of restructuring schools: Building from the ground up. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lieberman, A. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1992, May). Networks for educational change: Powerful and problematic. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(9), 673-677.
  • Lindberg, R. (1995). Seeking the elusive balance. Association Management, 47(1), 86-89.
  • Little, J.W. (1982). Norms of collegiality and experimentation: Workplace conditions of school success. American Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 325-340.
  • Louis, K.S. & Kruse, S.D. (1995). Professionalism and community: Perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Louis, K.S. & Miles, M.B. (1990). Improving the urban high school: What works and why. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lynn, L. (1995-96, Winter). Successful school restructuring involves four components. WCER Highlights, 7(3), 4-5, 8. Madison, WI: Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • MacMullen, M.M. (1996). Taking stock of a school reform effort: A research collection and analysis, Occasional Paper Series #2. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.
  • Marsick, V.J. & Watkins, K.E. (1994, Winter). The learning organization: An integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353-360.
  • Martel, L.D. (1993, June). Building a learning community: School leaders and their organizations need to share a vision to challenge all young minds. School Administrator, 50(6), 22-27.
  • Matthews, R.S., Cooper, J.L., Davidson, N. & Hawkes, P. (1995, July). Building bridges between cooperative and collaborative learning. Change, 27(4), 34-38.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1993). What matters most in teachers' workplace context, in Judith Warren Little & Milbrey McLaughlin (eds.), Teachers' work: Individuals, colleagues, and contexts. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • McLaughlin, M.W. & Talbert, J.E. (1993). Contexts that matter for teaching and learning. Stanford: Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching, Stanford University.
  • Midgley, C. & Wood, S. (1993, November). Beyond site-based management: Empowering teachers to reform schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 245-252.
  • Miles, M.B. & Louis, K.S. (1990). Mustering the will and skill for change. Educational Leadership, 47(8), 57-61.
  • Murphy, C. (1991, October). Changing organizational culture through administrator study groups. The Developer. National Staff Development Council.
  • Newmann, F.M. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). Successful school restructuring. Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Oakes, J. (1989, Summer). What educational indicators? The case for assessing the school context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(2), 181-199.
  • O'Day, J., Goertz, M.E. & Floden, R.E. (1995, December). Building capacity for education reform. CPRE Policy Briefs/Consortium for Policy Research in Education. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers.
  • O'Neil, J. (1995, April). On schools as learning organizations: A conversation with Peter Senge. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 20-23.
  • Peterson, K.D. & Brietzke, R. (1994). Building collaborative cultures: Seeking ways to reshape urban schools. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Peterson, P.L., McCarthey, S.J. & Elmore, R.F. (1996, Spring). Learning from school restructuring. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 119-153.
  • Prestine, N.A. (1993, July). Extending the essential schools metaphor: Principal as enabler. Journal of School Leadership, 3(4), 356-379.
  • Quellmalz, E., Shields, P.M. & Knapp, M.S. (1995). School-based reform: Lessons from a national study. Washington, DC: Planning and Evaluation Service, Office of the Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education.
  • Raywid, M.A. (1993, September). Finding time for collaboration. Educational Leadership, 51(1), 30-34.
  • Reitzug, U.C. & Burrello, L.C. (1995, April). How principals can build self-renewing schools. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 48-50.
  • Restructuring Collaborative Laboratory Network. (1997). Look who's talking now: Students' views of learning in restructuring schools. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  • Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher's workplace: The social organization of schools. New York: Longman.
  • Sarason, S.B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994a). Building community in schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994b, May). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30(2), 214-226.
  • Sergiovanni, T.J. (1996). Leadership for the schoolhouse. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Snyder, K.J., Acker-Hocevar, M. & Snyder, K.M. (1996, Winter). Principals speak out on changing school work cultures. Journal of Staff Development, 17(1), 14-19.
  • Spears, J.D. & Oliver, J.P. (1996). Rural school reform: Creating a community of learners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York City.
  • Sykes, G. (1996, March). Reform of and as professional development. Phi Delta Kappan, 77(7), 465-476.
  • Watts, G.D. & Castle, S. (1993, December). The time dilemma in school restructuring. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(3), 306-310.
  • Whyte, D. (1994). The heart aroused: Poetry and the preservation of the soul in corporate America. New York: Currency Doubleday.
  • Wignall, R. (1992, June). Building a collaborative school culture: A case study of one woman in the principalship. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Wood, C.J. (1995). You can't teach what you don't know: A summary report on NM-FAME. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico.


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